The universe is full of radiation. Since ancient times, life on Earth would be exposed to background radiation in the natural environment. Although background radiation may not cause any real physical damage to cells and tissues and the health effects will be negligible unless exposed to higher dosages. However in today's society, the growing popularity of the use of radiation because of its diagnostic and therapeutic benefits needs to be taken note of, this man-made radiation exposure can be harmful to our health when we do not find ways to reduce the unwanted radiation exposure.
Radiation Protection: also known as the physical health or safety of radiation, Ionizing radiation to prevent harmful effects on people's science and technology. Application of Radiation Protection Department of disciplines, as the basic subjects are: radiation dosimeter, radiation biology, ecology radiation, radiation shielding and radiation detection and so on; also involved in nuclear engineering, meteorology, geology hydrology, industrial safety, legal , Education and practical psychology. Radiation Protection includes: radiation protection principles and objectives; radiation protection: radiation monitoring technology; evaluation of radiation protection and nuclear contingency. Radiation protection principles and objectives of the radiation protection is the basis and starting point; protection methods in order to achieve the goal of protection and implementation of the principle of the protection measures must be taken; monitoring techniques to test whether the planned method of protection means to an end; protection is a comprehensive evaluation and analysis Research facilities and protective method is in line with the optimization of radiation protection principles and to further improve the protection situation.
Radiation (External) of the basic radiation protection measures
1， by exposure to radiation, the shorter the time, the body less effective dose.
2， the distance: the farther away from radiation sources, the fewer doses.
3，shielding: stereotype, or the concrete wall of water can stop or reduce the radiation intensity of radiation.
Basic radiation protection measures
To reduce the intake of radioactive material caused by the dose (irradiation) can take the following basic radiation protection measures:
1, to reduce exposure times;
2, to prevent contamination on the surface;
3, to prevent inhalation of radioactive material with the air;
4, to prevent radioactive material consumption of contaminated food and drinking contaminated water.
Radiation protection principles
For any activity, and an increase of individuals or groups of radiation exposure, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 1990 proposal (No. 60 publications), set out three basic principles of radiation protection:
1, the legitimate practice of radiation ─ any action must be well-founded, that the action by the exposure of personal or social advantages outweighed the disadvantages;
2, protection of personal ─ optimal dose exposure to radiation and the number should be reasonably practicable and take into account the economic and social factors to a minimum; and
3, the individual dose limit ─ suffered personal exposure dose limit in line with the need to ensure that no one need suffer unacceptable radiation hazards.
As a result of the nuclear accident and to increase the level of natural radiation, the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its 1990 proposal (No. 60 publications) and the 1991 Recommendation (No. 63 publications), are To be proposed to intervene (that is, through the activities of certain pre-existing causes of exposure, thereby reducing the total amount of exposure) to protect the affected people's health, protection of its principles:
Justify─ justified in the lower dose and harm reduction at the same time, the harmful effects of the intervention itself with the price, including the social cost is worth it necessary.
Optimization ─ intervention in the form, scale and duration should seek to optimize and reduce the radiation hazards to get the benefits of deducting the harmful effects of the intervention, the greatest net benefits.
The purpose of radiation protection
Radiation Protection is to reduce radiation hazards to human health. In the formulation of appropriate protective measures, we have to understand radiation on human health effects.
The main effect of the radiation effects of uncertainty and randomness into effect two broad categories. The former existence of threshold dose, when the absorbed dose greater than the threshold, the radiation on human health caused by a certain degree of hazard. The latter is no threshold dose, but the effect of the opportunities and the rate of dose-related.
According to the characteristics of the radiation effects, radiation protection, the main purpose is to:
1, to prevent the harmful effects of uncertainty;
2, the incidence of random effects to an acceptable level.